Whitepaper: Bill Recycling in Ticket Vending Machines (TVMs)
Unattended Ticket Vending Machines have been used for a number of years by Transit Authorities (hereafter referred to as the Operators) as an alternative to selling tickets through tellers.
TVM deployment has enabled some important benefits to both Operators and riders. From an Operators’ perspective, one major benefit is the cost savings due to the elimination of the tellers’ labor cost. Other benefits are less cash shrinkage as TVM implementation has enabled closed-loop cash loading and unloading systems thanks to locked cash cassettes of Bill Validators used in TVMs.
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